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日本三菱柴油发电机发动机维修保养(维修保养)


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日本三菱柴油发电机、常见故障与排除 柴油机保养维修技巧

1 启动困难

1.1 三菱发电机故障现象
柴油发电机在起动机带动下,转速达到启动转速,但不能启动,通常表现为:
(1)启动时无爆发声,排气口无烟排出,不能启动.
(2)启动时可听到连续的爆发声,有白烟或少量黑烟,但不能启动.

1.2 三菱发电机故障原因
(1)低压油路的故障
1)油箱内无油或油面太低,吸管吸不上油.
2)油管破裂,油管接头松动漏油.
3)供油系统有空气或管路不通,造成发动机不着火.
4)柴油中有水,冬季结冰,造成管路不通;冬季使用的柴油标号不符,造成柴油析蜡,堵塞滤清器及油管.
5)长期不清洗,不更换柴油滤清器滤芯,造成堵塞.
6)喷油泵溢流阀弹簧折断或被异物垫起,使柴油从低压油路流回柴油箱,从而使低压油路不能保持一定油压,发动机不着火.


(2)三菱发电机输油泵故障
1)止回阀装配不当,或者使用时间过长,使阀座面磨损过甚.
2)滤网堵塞.
3)输油泵的柱塞发咬,或弹簧折断,或磨损严重,输油泵不能正常供油.
4)输油泵推杆咬住.
5)手油泵活塞密封不严.
(3)供油传动系的故障
   1)调速器传动杆件磨损过甚,使供油齿条拉杆不能达到启动油量和额定供油量的位置.
   2)停油汽缸卡死在最低油位,不能使发动机着火,或停油汽缸的连接部分脱落.
   3)操纵杆连接销轴磨损严重,不起控制作用.

(4)三菱发电机喷油泵的故障
1)调正齿杆咬死,或柱塞因弹簧折断而卡住,使供油齿杆始终停留在停车位置.
2)柱塞磨损过甚,或柱塞在套筒中卡住.
3)齿轮磨损严重,使柱塞和挺杆的间隙过大,造成泵油量下降,导致发动 机不着火.
4)供油调整齿圈的锁紧螺栓松动或脱落,使泵的供油量改变.
5)出油阀有污物垫起,或出油阀弹簧折断而漏油或者一阀发卡.
6)喷油泵联轴器接合盘损坏,或者联轴器螺栓松动,使供油时间变化,导 致发动机不着火.
7)喷油泵传动轴和传动齿轮连接松脱,造成喷油泵不工作.
8)中间正时齿轮或喷油泵传动齿轮打坏.
(5)三菱发电机喷油器的故障
1)高压油泵接头松动或高压油管破裂.
2)喷油嘴堵塞或喷油嘴针阀由于过热而卡死.
3)喷油嘴偶件磨损严重,漏油,雾化不好.
4)喷油嘴喷雾压力变化,压力过低,不能燃烧.
5)喷油嘴损坏.
6)密封垫不密封,漏气.

    1.3 三菱发电机故障的判断和排除
(1)首先检查油箱的油位,如果无油或油位太低,应加注.油位加足后,用手油泵供油,并打开柴油滤清器上的放气螺塞,检查油路中是否有空气, 如有应排净.如果空气排不净,应检查油管接头是否松动和油管有无破裂.检查时可用干净的毛巾将接头和怀疑管线破裂的地方擦净,再用手油泵泵油观察,如果又出现柴油,说明该处松动或破裂.
(2)用手油泵泵油,如果来油不畅,说明低压油路中有堵塞现象,应检查油水分离器(粗滤器)、柴油滤清器及管路.特别强调的是应检查油水分离器中的金属滤芯是否堵塞.
(3)用手油泵泵油,并打开柴油滤清器上的旋紧螺塞,检查柴油中是否有水珠,如果有水珠,应放出油箱中的油水,重新加入合格的柴油.


(4)用手油泵泵油时,感到没有抽力,泵油多次不出油,即是手油泵活塞磨损过甚,或者阀被污染垫起,或磨损严重而密封不严.应检修或更换手油泵,如果在泵油时感到有弹力和阻力,在手柄下压时很痛快,而放开手柄能自动回位,说明油泵的进油管至油箱有阻塞之处.在这一点上将油箱至油水分离器,至输油泵管线全部换成透明的耐压塑料管,对油流和阻塞看得十分清楚.另外,手油泵盖密封不好也会引起输油泵泵油不良.
(5)通过上述检查,如一切正常,应检查喷油泵的工作情况,检查传动齿轮是否松脱打坏,喷油提前角是否变化,联轴器固定螺栓是否松动.如果发动机喷油泵轴转动,应拆卸油泵高压油管接头,用起动机带动发动机,并将油门加大,如果喷油泵油管接头松脱处没有油流出,应检查和校验喷油泵.检验喷油泵应在油泵试验台上进行,按标准调正.

如果三菱发电机喷油泵校验后,喷油提前角一切正常,仍发动不起来,应拆卸喷油器,检验喷油压力,喷嘴雾化情况,如果雾化不良,也会造成发动机的启动困难.

一定要按季节更换符合标准的柴油,防止柴油析蜡.

2 三菱发电机工作粗暴

2.1 故障现象
发动机运转不稳,伴随着排气管冒黑烟而产生类似金属的敲击声.加速时敲击声加剧,高速时敲击声减弱或消失,怠速时又再现敲击声.

2.2 三菱发电机故障原因
(1)由于喷油泵联轴器固定螺栓松动,造成提前角过大.
(2)燃油质量差或各缸供油量不均匀,个别缸供油量过大.
(3)长期的高速运行,发动机温度过高或产生爆燃.
(4)燃烧室积炭严重也会产生爆燃.

2.3 三菱发电机故障排除
及时调整供油提前角,并使用正确的燃油.

日本三菱发电机柴油机保养维修技巧

发动机是一部机器的核心部件,因此发动机的保养与维修至关重要。下面谈一谈柴油机的保养与维修技巧。

一、保养技巧

1、三菱柴油发动机的“飞车”现象及应急措施

“飞车”或超速是发动机特有的一种现象。“飞车”时柴油机转速失去控制,而且越来越快,以至超过允许的最高转速并伴随有巨大声响,严重时导致机件损坏报废。引起“飞车”主要原因有两方面:一是喷油泵调速器本身的故障,使其丧失了正常的调整特性;另一方面是柴油机调速特性的改变,其特征是喷油泵调速器本身没有故障,而柴油机在运转过程中有额外柴油或机油进入燃烧室燃烧。发生“飞车”现象应采取紧急措施,发动机转速高到一定程度时会发生故障。制止超速的紧急措施有:

(1)迅速将加速踏板收回到停车位置。 

(2)有减速装置的,迅速将减压手柄拉到停油位置(或减压位置)。

(3)及时挂入高速挡,踏下制动踏板,缓抬离合器,使发动机熄火。

(4)迅速断开高压油管,停止供油。

(5)迅速用衣服包紧空气滤清器,使发动机断气熄火。

以上五步简称“减速、减压、制动、断气”。

2、 三菱发电机柴油机各缸工作情况检查方法

柴油机各缸工作情况可在怠速运转时用如下方法检查:

(1)听音法:用听诊器或借助金属棒,靠近喷油器体的部位,倾听各缸爆发的声音,正常的声音类似金属敲击“当当”的声响。若只有“嗬嗬”连续不干脆的响声时,则该缸供油太少或是没有及时着火,如敲击声很大,说明该缸供油量太大或喷油时间过早。

(2)观色法:柴油机工作正常时,排出的废气颜色为淡灰色,负荷大时略深。如排黑气,说明可燃气体燃烧不完全。排蓝烟,表明润滑油进入气缸内燃烧。排白烟,则说明柴油机中有水,可燃气体未燃烧也排白烟。排气管连续排出不正常的烟色,说明个别缸工作不正常。

(3)感温法:在柴油机启动后的最初阶段(工作一段时间后排气管温度很高,用手触摸会烫伤)用手摸各缸排气管的温度,可鉴别各缸工作情况。如果各缸排气管的温度比其他缸高,说明该缸供油量偏高;若温度低,则该缸供油量少、或不喷油、或喷油后没完全燃烧或不燃烧。

(4)脉冲法:用手捏紧高压油管,感觉喷油时的脉动情况,脉动小,爆发声音弱,温度低的缸供油量偏小。爆发声音不正常和温度高为喷油器喷油油压下降,喷油雾化不良,或不能及时着火和完全燃烧。脉动大,爆发声音强,温度高的缸为供油量偏大。爆发声音弱和温度低为喷油器孔或针阀卡死。

(5)断油法:为了准确判断哪缸有故障,可逐缸切断高压油管至喷油器油路,即停止工作,以观察柴油机工作情况的变化。当切断某缸油路时,若柴油机转速和声音没有变化或变化不大,说明该缸工作正常。如间断敲缸,排黑烟时,当切断某缸的油路后,故障现象消失,则说明故障在该缸。

3、 三菱发电机柴油机节油五法

(1)使用节油减烟器。将节油减烟器垂直固定在喷油泵的前端油路中,接上直流电源。在柴油机上使用,减烟显著。既减少环境污染,又能节油5%左右。

(2)安装惯性增压器。在柴油机上安装使用惯性增压器,一般可提高功率15%,油耗下降3%~5%。

(3)在滤芯上包扎卫生纸。在柴油机油滤芯上包扎2~3层吸附性强的卫生纸,能提高油料清洁度,降低油耗。

(4)加装泡沫塑料空气滤芯。空气滤清器两层滤网中,增加一层透气性能良好的8~20mm厚的泡沫塑料,可提高滤清效果,保住油料正常燃烧,降低油耗。

(5)回油管改道。把柴油机回油管接入高压油管上,使回油进入低压油路,可保证正常燃烧,节油效果十分显著。

 small debris, not only will spill, also directly affect the engine work.

With: in asbestos pad, pad of paper, all kinds of plugs and oil paint stone. Stone cotton to wipe thin and uniform, not too thick, not to pad the whole face with, only apply the local oil spill.

Grinding: grinding or cutting parts of the surface, its role is to restore the surface smoothness and precision, so that the pipe joint or gasket after grinding can remain sealed, no oil leakage.

Tight: seal tightness to fit, not too tight or too loose. Such as diesel various contact surfaces and the sealing nut, must maintain proper tightness.

In 2, the cylinder pressure. In order to ensure there is enough pressure in the cylinder, piston and cylinder clearance, piston ring end gap, edge must conform to the requirements, the valve and valve seat sealing, the front end of the injector cylinder gasket sealing better, better, and thickness to meet the requirements.

In 3, the volume of the combustion chamber. Diesel engine repair after often causes the volume of the combustion chamber is changed, change the original compression ratio, directly affects the normal operation of diesel engine. Combustion chamber volume change factors are: the position of the piston is reversed, the thickness of cylinder head gasket properly, a crank connecting rod mechanical wear or bending, swirl chamber insert mismatch, the large valve sinkage. During repairs, to respond to these situations of attention.

In 4, it closed when. Timing closing including fuel injection timing and valve timing, if the oil supply is not positive, S195, X195 diesel engine with fuel injection pump and the gear chamber cover between the shim adjustment, each change 0.1mm thick shim, equivalent to the flywheel arc length6.3mm. If the gas is insufficient, should first check and correct timing gear installed on the error, and then adjust the valve clearance, clearance of valve changes each0.1mm, variation of crank angle3 °, equivalent to the flywheel arc length11.1mM, adjustment should be paid attention to when piston compression to the TDC, inlet, exhaust valve clearance ( cold state ) cannot be less than 0.2mm, to prevent mechanical thermal expansion valve closed, lax, or the valve head impact piston.

5," filter". Air filter technical status is not good, lead dust into the cylinder, piston rings, cylinder speed, valve and valve seat of early wear, startup difficulties caused by the decline of power. Diesel, oil filter technical status is not good, will make the impurities into the relevant parts, resulting in three precision coupling of early wear and tear, acceleration of the crankshaft and bearing wear, serious person can cause early rejection diesel engine.

In 6, diesel fuel spray off. Plunger vice, an oil outlet valve side and injector needle Deputy technical status is not good, will cause the atomization of the fuel injector of diesel engine starting is difficult, bad, incomplete combustion, coke increased, resulting in reduction of engine power, fuel consumption increase, therefore, the fuel system, especially the precision coupling of careful check.

In 7, the through hole and the hole clearance. (1) the through hole clearance: now take S195 diesel engine as an example, bearing, bushing5through holes in the mounting to it.

A, main bearing. Each of the main bearing oil groove on drill oil hole, respectively, and the cylinder body, the shaft neck hole communicated with the oil, when installed, as long as the main bearing flange notch on the quasi-steady pin, can prevent the main bearing rotation, ensuring the oil hole alignment, so that the lubricating oil path smooth operator, to avoid damage.

B, rocker arm bushing. To the rocker arm is pressed into the Bush, such as holes are not aligned, rocker shaft and bushing can be due to lack of lubrication friction and loss, so that the valve gap becomes large, resulting in serious percussion sound.

 
                                                
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